The values for modulus of rupture and thermal conductivity averaged 81 MN/m2 and 0.494 W/mo K.
The refractoriness of all the samples were 1300o C and this showed that they could be used as insulating materials. Agha O A (1998) Testing of local refractory clay for producing furnace lining bricks.
Proof-carrying code (PCC) is a software mechanism that allows a host system to verify properties about an application via a formal proof that accompanies the application's executable code.
Complexity is generally used to characterize something with many parts where those parts interact with each other in multiple ways, culminating in a higher order of emergence greater than the sum of its parts.
The values for specific gravity, bulk density, solid density and apparent porosity averaged 2.75, 2.04 g/cm3 , 3.18 g/cm3 , and 13% respectively and they were within the internationally accepted range.
The values for linear shrinkage, permeability to air and thermal shock averaged 8.57% 69.4, and 29 respectively and these also were within the accepted limits.
Results show scarce BIM implementation in existing buildings yet, due to challenges of (1) high modeling/conversion effort from captured building data into semantic BIM objects, (2) updating of information in BIM and (3) handling of uncertain data, objects and relations in BIM occurring in existing buildings.
Despite fast developments and spreading standards, challenging research opportunities arise from process automation and BIM adaption to existing buildings' requirements.